N.D. bill to protect student journalists' freedom of speech amended in committee

The legislation would enhance students’ freedom of expression in school-sponsored media regardless of school funding, preventing administrators from invoking the Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier precedent.

Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District U.S. Supreme Court opinion

In February 1969, the U.S. Supreme Court reversing lower court decisions in favor of three Iowa students who were suspended for wearing black armbands in protest of the Vietnam War. Memorably, the court's majority opinion — penned by Justice Abe Fortas — noted that neither students nor teachers "shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate." The ruling sets the standard by which school administrators may censor student speech.

Federal rulings in Florida, Michigan push back against Hazelwood’s advancing tide

When a student voices a personal opinion during school -- even during class -- that opinion is entitled to a high degree of First Amendment protection, and it may neither be proscribed nor punished absent concrete evidence that it provoked a disruptive reaction or was imminently likely to do so.That has been the law for some 44 years, since the Supreme Court decided Tinker v.